General Biking Information (Types of Events, Terminology etc.)
Junior U15: Must be under 15 as at 31st December each year
Junior U17: Aged 15 thru 16 as at 31st December each year
Junior U19: Aged 17 thru 18 as at 31st December each year
U23: Aged 19 thru 22 as at 31st December each year
Senior: Aged 23 thru 29 as at 31st December each year
Road races are held on public roads and are of varying distances. For novices (under 16) the distances range from 10-50 kms. For experienced seniors one day races can be up to 190kms.
There are numerous varieties of road races:
Riders race over the same distance and course. The faster cyclists start last with the others being given a "head start" depending on ability
• Massed start
Cyclists are divided into divisions depending on ability. Riders in each division start together
As per massed start except on a circuit of up to 2 kms. Preferably the circuit is closed to other traffic
• Stage Races
Commonly referred to as tours. A tour consists of one or more races or stages per day, over multiple days. The winner being the cyclist with the lowest aggregate time for the total distance.
• Time trial
Either individual or team. The cyclist or team races against the clock attempting to record a faster time than other cyclists/teams. Distances vary from 1km to 100km.
Track races are held on a purpose built track (Velodrome). Tracks are of varying distances from 250 metres up to 500 metres. Track bikes differ from road bikes as they have no brakes and only one gear (fixed wheel). To stop, the rider applies backward pressure on the pedals.
Track meetings are run during the day or in the evening with many types of events.
All cyclists start at the same time, with the slower riders being given a head start (handicap) of "X" metres in front of the faster cyclists
• Massed start
As with road races but distances are shorter, varying from 1 lap up to 40 kms for seniors
• Points race
A variation of the massed start event. Cyclists sprint for points at set laps, the winner being the cyclist with the most points. However, a cyclist may attempt to "steal" a lap.
If that cyclist successfully steals a lap then he/she wins the event even if the other cyclists have more points. If several cyclists have stolen a lap by lapping the field, then the points system is used to determine the winner. Distances vary depending on the grade and ability of cyclists.
A short event usually over two or three laps of the track depending on the size of the track. Usually only two cyclists race against each other during this event, although at some meetings there are three or four cyclists sprinting together. The event is timed over the last 200 metres only.
• Individual Pursuit
Two cyclists start on opposite sides of the track, racing against both the clock and each other. Distances vary depending on age with Novices racing over 2000 metres and Seniors racing 4000 metres. The art of pursuiting is to be able to ride at a constant high speed for lap after lap with the ability to increase the pace near the finish if necessary. Riding to a time schedule and responding to instructions given by the coach (standing on the inside corner of the track) is vital.
• Team Pursuit
As per individual pursuit but with a team of four cyclists who share turns at the front to maintain a higher speed. Distance is 4000 metres.
• Kilometre Time Trail
Commonly referred to as the "kilo", this event is a race against the clock over 1000 metres.
Other events are Motor paced (Demi fond), Keirin, Madison, Italian Pursuit, Devil and Tandem
Mountain Bike Racing
Mountainbike races are held on a wide variety of terrain including plantation forest, native bush and pastoral land. Very wide ranges of event are catered for ranging from short sprint style 4X racing to multi-hour marathon and endurance races, and bike style and choice is just as wide to suit.
• Cross Country (XCO)
Olympic format cross country is a multi-lap endurance event run over durations of 1.25 hours for junior women to 2.25 hours for elite men. Races are held on courses of between 5 and 9km in length.
• Cross Country (XCM)
Marathon format cross country is a mass start event, with a minimum duration of 3 hours and total distance of 60kms.
• Cross Country (XCP)
Point to point format cross country can vary in distance between 25 and 60km, and are point to point or single loop.
• Cross Country (XCC)
Short circuit or criterium format cross country racing is held on courses with a maximum length of 5km, and are multi lap in design.
• Downhill (DHI)
An individual race against the clock down a mountain trail. Races are between 2 and 5 minutes in duration and are designed with a wide combination of both high speed and tight technical sections
• Downhill (DHM)
A mass start downhill event
• Dual (Parallel) Slalom
Two riders race one another on parallel and as identical as possible courses down an easy gradient, with race times between 20 and 45 seconds. Riders swap courses for a repeat run and the best combined time wins, graduating through an elimination type system.
• Four Cross (4X)
An elimination style event, with four riders head to head on a purpose built course of 30 – 40 seconds duration.
• Hill Climb (HC)
A race against the clock on a steep ascending course. This event runs between 15 and 30 minutes in duration, and is generally a mass start.
• MTB Trials
A highly technical event based on points scored and lost for manoeuvres over a set course of obstacles
BMX races are held on short (300-400m long), purpose built tracks housing a variety of obstacles including jumps and berms.
A group of up to eight riders of the same class who will race each other.
The final qualifying moto to determine who will transfer to the main.
Qualifying for the semi or main events
The final moto of a particular class to decide who wins
• Nominated Qualifying Meet (NQM)
Riders wishing to race at the National Championships must complete a minimum of three NQMs – each region is allocated three NQMs, with North and South Island Titles also being NQMs
Cycling Terminology – Commonly Used Phrases, Terms & Jargon
An aggressive "jump" to get away from another rider or the bunch
When a rider tries to get in the way of other riders, usually done as part of a team strategy to slow down the main field when other team members are ahead in a breakaway
French word for a cyclist's drink bottle
Break or Breakaway
A single or group of riders who have cycled away from the bunch
Bridge the Gap
When a rider or group of riders is attempting to reach a group farther ahead
French word for the main pack or group of riders
Rate of pedal revolutions (rpm)
Riding closely behind another rider or group which creates a slipstream or air pocket. Riders take turns at leading as the lead rider expends up to 30 percent more energy than the following rider(s) does
The mechanism that moves the chain from one gear to another
Describes riders(s) that have been left behind by a group they were riding with.
A line of riders taking orderly turns at the lead and staggered so that each rider will get maximum protection from the wind. Also called a "pace line"
At some point during a long road race it is necessary for riders to replace expended energy. Riders are given a "musette," a small cloth bag, containing food and water bottles. Riders grab the bag from the team support personnel, remove the contents and put them in the pockets of their jerseys to eat when most convenient. Feed stations are organized for XCO type events where riders can feed as required each lap.
The final sprint between a group of riders, not necessarily for first place
Force the Pace
When one rider goes harder than the pack to increase the tempo
The distance between individual or groups
A quick acceleration usually done at the first part of a sprint or attack
Race tactic where the leading rider accelerates to maximum speed with a team mate following close behind. The team mate accelerates out of the draft and sprints past to the finish line.
Sharing the effort in a pace line
Pronounced "Swa-neur" Comparable to a trainer in other sports, this person gives massages and watches the physical health of the riders along with the team doctors
The final burst of speed to the finish line
When a rider is at the front of pace line they are "taking a turn"
An oval banked track, usually 333.33 meters in length. In general, track riders and road riders compete in separate kinds of events. The difference in training and ability is similar to the
difference between sprinters and long-distance runners.
Occupying position other than the lead spot in the pace line
Specific Training Terms
Form of exercise that is at a continuous and moderate level
Intense type of exercise where lactic acid is formed
A by product of hard exercise that causes muscle pain
A form of energy derived from grains, bread, pasta, potatoes etc.
Fast training developing the anaerobic system
LSD or Base
Long Steady Distance training, aerobic or endurance
Maximum amount of oxygen consumed in one minute
Riding at a continuous steady pace